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You have just visited the ONLY website of its kind on the NET! . . . . . congratulations! . . . . . Welcome to this NEW domain! . . . . .

Get ready
for a rewarding and NOSTALGIC journey into
the wonderful world of SOLUTIONS!



This website has been
produced to give data and information on how to prepare chemical
reagents and solutions used in the analytical

Acids and bases
This page gives data
on concentration, and provides info
on how to dilute and prepare
1 M solutions of acids bases and ammonia.

Gas chrom
A special page
on gas chromatography,
with some important practical and theoretical considerations:
info on theory, stationary phases, columns, detectors,
analytical performance and troubleshooting.

Atomic absorption
The preparation
of 1000 ppm AA standards
used in a wide range of elements
analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

parts per million

A special page is also included for the gas chromatograph practicioners

How to
dilute and calculate
ppm concentrations and volumes:
the conversion of ppm to molarity and percentage amounts.

The preparation of 250 ml. titration standards and solutions
for acids and bases,
oxidation / reduction, and precipitation.
Concentrations are expressed in both
Molarity and Normality.


An effort has been made to simplify certain aspects of the laboratory experiments that are not included in the lab scripts.
Sample type, size and procedural guidelines are all included in a brand new format.

The preparation of
pH, adsorption, redox, and EDTA indicators
used in titrimetry and complexometric titrations.

Organic reagents
How to make up
reagents and solutions for organic qualitative analysis:
reagents specific to determination by class reactions
and group analysis.

Inorganic reagents
How to make up
reagents and solutions for inorgani qualitative analysis.
general side bench reagents,
and special reagents for specific elements and tests.

Spray reagents
The preparation
and use of chromatography spray reagents.
Included is a chromatography spray index
as an aid to selection and identification.

Lab guidelines.
An overview of all the analytical laboratory experiments
done in the C30F and C31F teaching lab.
Helpful hints, procedures and preparations