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This page provides info on how to dilute and prepare 1 molar (1M) solutions of acids, bases, and ammonia.

CONCENTRATED ACIDS

Acids Molarity Percent S.G. 1M soln
Acetic acid
MW=60.05
17.4M 99% 1.05 58 mls / liter
HCl
MW=36.46
11.6M 36% 1.18 Use 86 mls / l
Nitric acid
MW=63.01
16.4M 69% 1.42 61 mls / l
H2SO4
MW=98.07
17.6M
36N
95% 1.84 56 mls / l(1M)
28 mls / l (1N)
Ammonia soln
MW=35.05
14.5M
15N
28% 0.88 Use 71 mls / l (1M)
Hydrobromic acid 9 N 48% 1.49 11.1 mls /l (1M)
Hydrofluoric acid
MW=20.01
27M 48% 1.29 37 mls /l (1M)
Hydriodic acid 7M 57% 1.70 143 mls /l (1M)
Perchloric acid
MW=100.46
11.7M
9.5M
70%
61%
1.71
1.66
85.5mls /l (1M)
106 mls /l (1M)
Phosphoric acid
MW=97.99
45N
15M
88% 1.69 22.5 mls /l (1N)
68 mls /l (1M)




DILUTE ACIDS

Acetic Acid
Dilute 116 mls.of the concentrated acid to 1 litre of water. (2M)
Hydrochloric Acid
Dilute 172 mls. of the concentrated acid to 1 litre with water.(2M)
Nitric Acid
Dilute 122mls. of the concentrated acid to 1 liter with water. (2M)
Sulphuric Acid
Pour 56 mls.of the concentrated acid slowly and with constant stirring into about 500mls. of water, cool, and dilute to 1 litre. (1M)
Sulphurous Acid
Prepare a saturated solution of SO2 in water. 6-7% by weght.




DILUTE BASES

Ammonia solution conc.
The commercial product, S.G. 0.88 contains about 28% NH3. (15N)
Ammonia solution dilute
Dilute 335 ml of the commercial solution to 1 liter (5N)
Barium hydroxide
Shake 70 gms. of crystalised salt in 1 liter of water. Filter or siphon off the liquid , and protect from CO2 of the air 0.2M
Calcium hydroxide
Shake 2-3 gms. of calcium hydroxide with 1 liter of water. Filter or siphon off liquid, and protest from CO2 of the air. 0.02M
Potassium hydroxide
Dissolve 112 gms. of KOH pellets in water , and dilute to 1 liter. (2M)
Sodium hydroxide
Dissolve 200 gm pellets in water and dilute to 1 liter. (5M)